DDR5 Demystified – Feat. Samsung DDR5-4800: A Have a look at Ranks, DPCs, and Do Producers Matter?



The most well liked development in reminiscence expertise for desktop computer systems in recent times is undoubtedly the discharge of DDR5 reminiscence and Intel’s twelfth Gen Core collection of processors. Not solely does DDR5 reminiscence yield increased reminiscence bandwidth for a lot of totally different use instances, however DDR5 additionally provides a generational enhance in reminiscence capability, permitting for increased capability UDIMMs over time.

However, as all the time, the reminiscence market is something however homogenous. Even with simply three precise DRAM producers, DIMM distributors are providing DDR5 at a slew of clockspeeds, each official JEDEC speeds and X.M.P. profile reminiscence that basically comes overclocked out of the field. There are additionally notable variations in at this time’s frequent DDR5 DIMM configurations, together with single-sided UDIMMs (1Rx8), and dual-sided reminiscence (2Rx8), in addition to UDIMMs with totally different capacities.

In at this time’s piece, we’re DDR5-4800 reminiscence from Samsung, together with 2 x 32 GB, 2 x 16 GB, and 4 x 16 GB, to measure the efficiency variations between single and twin rank reminiscence, in addition to any variations between operating DDR5 in a single DIMM Per Channel (DPC) or two. Lastly, as now we have DDR5-4800 DIMMs with DRAM from Micron and SK Hynix, too, we’ll even be these in our outcomes, to see if there are any efficiency variations among the many three reminiscence producers.

Scaling With DDR5 Reminiscence: The Story So Far

In December 2021, we examined the efficiency scalability of DDR5 reminiscence utilizing G.Ability’s Trident Z5 2 x 16 GB package of DDR5-6000 CL36 reminiscence at a variety of various frequencies. Our findings confirmed that going from JEDEC settings of DDR4-4800 CL36 as much as DDR4-6400 CL36 yielded a efficiency achieve of 14% when utilizing one in all our most memory-sensitive benchmarks, WinRAR 5.90. The consensus right here was that utilizing sooner reminiscence did enable for an uplift in virtually the entire eventualities we examined. Nonetheless, the caveat was that as a result of excessive costs of sooner kits, there at the moment is not any sort of value/efficiency candy spot past present DDR5-4800 JEDEC kits – the value premium for high-speed kits is at the moment better than the efficiency advantages.

Samsung DDR5-4800B CL40 reminiscence (2 x 32 GB) (2Rx8)

Right now’s Take a look at: Ranks, DPCs, and Do Reminiscence Producers Matter?

Since that preliminary article was centered on reminiscence frequencies and latencies, we wished to check out the opposite parts of the equation for DDR5 efficiency. This contains DIMM ranks, the variety of DIMMs in a single reminiscence channel, and even the reminiscence producers themselves. We have seen what occurs once we play with the primary two variables, now what occurs once we play with the remaining?

Specializing in DDR5 DIMM configurations, the DDR5 reminiscence modules at the moment accessible for customers utilizing Intel’s twelfth Gen Core collection are available 4 totally different combos. This contains single rank (1Rx8) and twin rank (2Rx8) DIMMs, which in flip usually are available kits of two or 4, making for 1 DIMM Per Channel (1DPC) or 2 DIMMs Per Channel (2DPC) respectively. And, as we’ll see in our testing, each ranks and DPCs do influence DDR5 efficiency, so there may be rather more to getting probably the most out of DDR5 reminiscence than simply frequency and latencies.

The elemental questions we need to reply on this article are:

  1. Is there a distinction in efficiency between 1Rx8 and 2Rx8 with DDR5 reminiscence?
  2. Is there a distinction in efficiency when utilizing 1DPC versus 2DPC (2x32GB vs. 4x16GB)?
  3. Is there a distinction in efficiency between reminiscence from totally different producers at an identical timings?

To discover the efficiency variations in of DDR5 working in several ranks and DPCs, Samsung has despatched over a set of their newest DDR5-4800B DIMMs in two totally different configurations/capacities: 16GB 1Rx8 DIMMs, and 32GB 2Rx8 DIMMs. As one of many Large Three DRAM producers, Samsung has an infinite presence within the reminiscence market, however that is really the primary time the corporate has ever sampled consumer-grade UDIMMs. So we’re excited to see how their very own in-house DIMMs do on this respect.

With Samsung’s DIMMs in hand, we have been in a position to check between the 2 totally different configurations, to see if 1Rx8 versus 2Rx8 is healthier from a efficiency perspective. We’re additionally in a position to measure the influence of transferring from 1DPC to 2DPC, an all the time attention-grabbing matter as DDR reminiscence signaling has change into more and more troublesome with every technology.

Essential (Micron) DDR5-4800B CL40 reminiscence (2 x 32 GB) (2Rx8)

Lastly, as we have already got 32 GB (2Rx8) kits from SK Hynix and Micron, this has additionally allowed us to do a real apples-to-apples comparability amongst totally different DIMM kits at inventory JEDEC speeds. With JEDEC timings all reminiscence ought to be equal, so that is the proper alternative to check and make sure that notion. Plus the extra DIMMs give us a great management to check the efficiency of the Samsung DIMMs to, to ensure there are not any Samsung-specific oddities happening.

Ranks & DPCs: A Fast Refresher

Wanting on the configurations of DDR5 UDIMMs, there are two fundamental varieties, 1Rx8 and 2Rx8. The R within the 1Rx8 stands for rank, so 1Rx8 means it has one rank with eight reminiscence chips per rank. 2Rx8, in flip, means there are two ranks of eight reminiscence chips. In observe, with at this time’s DDR5 DIMMs, 1Rx8 will probably be a single-sided DIMM, whereas 2Rx8 is all the time dual-sided. We should always notice that there’s additionally quad rank (4Rx8) reminiscence as nicely, however that is usually present in servers and never often meant for client platforms (the place it could not even be supported to start with).

As a result of the variety of chips per rank is fastened – and so is the density of the first-gen DDR5 dies accessible at this time – the capability of at this time’s DDR5 DIMMs is immediately proportional to the variety of ranks. 32GB DIMMs are completely 2Rx8, utilizing a complete of 16 16Gb dies, whereas 16GB DIMMs will drop down to eight of these dies.

And, in fact, on most motherboards it is doable to populate both one or two DIMMs per Channel (DPC). Including a second DIMM to a channel permits for doubling the entire reminiscence capability of a system – going as much as 128GB with at this time’s programs – however it additionally comes with a possible efficiency tradeoff. Driving a number of DIMMs in a single reminiscence channel is more durable on the reminiscence controller than driving a lone DIMM, which suggests going past two DIMMs is usually a tradeoff between capability and efficiency, relatively than a method of accelerating each. Which makes for a very attention-grabbing query proper now when making an attempt to construct a 64GB system: is it higher to go along with two 2Rx8 DIMMs, or 4 1Rx8 DIMMs?

Samsung, SK Hynix, and Micron DDR5 Manufacturing: The Variations

We have now devoted many column inches to DDR5 reminiscence over the past couple of years; every reminiscence producer has its personal course of used to supply its reminiscence ICs. Every totally different reminiscence producer additionally has its personal manufacturing course of and design software to create its dies for the reminiscence chips.

DDR5 Manufacturing Variations/Specs

(Samsung, SK Hynix, Micron)
Producer Samsung SK Hynix Micron
Velocity (MT/s) DDR5-4800 DDR5-4800 DDR5-4800
Bandwidth 38.4 GB/s 38.4 GB/s 38.4 GB/s
Die Space 73.58 mm² 75.21 mm² 66.26 mm²
Die Capability 16 Gb 16 Gb 16 Gb
Course of Node Samsung D1y SK Hynix D1y Micron D1z

All the DDR5-4800B reminiscence we’re testing on this article is what I wish to name the ‘early adopter DDR5’, which suggests it is the utilizing first iteration of DDR5 reminiscence from every of the distributors.

On the early launch silicon for DDR5 DRAM, every of its packaged dies measures up barely totally different as every producer makes use of its course of. On the Samsung UDIMMs, it makes use of its SD1y node, with the die package deal space measuring at 73.55 mm². In distinction, the SK Hynix reminiscence ICs measure at 75.21 mm² and makes use of that firm’s D1y node, whereas the smallest of the three is the Micron, with a package deal dimension of 66.26 mm² and is made utilizing Micron’s D1z node.

Wanting ahead, every of the Large Three is planning to make use of the newest in Excessive Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to supply larger, increased density, and sooner dies sooner or later, a lot of that are already in early manufacturing. This contains the Samsung 14 nm node with EUV lithography, which ought to enable the mass manufacturing of DDR5-7200 reminiscence (and hopefully, a JEDEC normal to go along with it). Although as we’re additionally coping with the primary technology of DDR5 reminiscence controllers, the speeds attainable on Intel’s twelfth Gen Core, for instance, are restricted. When additional developments will be made, this could enable for sooner DDR5 reminiscence for use in on future PC platforms.

ADATA (SK Hynix) DDR5-4800B CL40 reminiscence (2 x 32 GB) (2Rx8)

Take a look at Mattress and Setup

Given DDR5 is a premium product, now we have opted to make use of a premium platform for our check mattress. This contains Intel’s highest performing Core Collection processor, the Core i9-12900K, and paired it up with a premium motherboard from MSI, the MSI MPG Z690 Carbon Wi-Fi. For our testing, we have left the Intel Core i9-12900K at default settings as per the firmware, with no adjustments made to CPU core frequency, reminiscence frequency, or reminiscence latencies.

For our testing, we’re utilizing the next:

DDR5 Reminiscence Take a look at Setup (Alder Lake)
Processor Intel Core i9-12900K, $589

125 W, 8+8 Cores, 24 Threads

3.2 GHz Base, 5.2 GHz P-Core Turbo
Motherboard MSI Z690 Carbon Wi-Fi
Cooling MSI Coreliquid 360mm AIO
Energy Provide Corsair HX850
Reminiscence Samsung DDR4-4800B CL40 (2 x 16 GB) – 1Rx8/1PDC

Samsung DDR4-4800B CL40 (4 x 16 GB) – 1Rx8/2DPC

Samsung DDR4-4800B CL40 (2 x 32 GB) – 2Rx8/1DPC

SK Hynix DDR4-4800B CL40 (2 x 32 GB) – 2Rx8/1DPC

Micron DDR4-4800B CL40 (2 x 32 GB) – 2Rx8/1DPC
Video Card NVIDIA RTX 2080 Ti, Driver 496.49
Onerous Drive Essential MX300 1TB
Case Open Benchtable BC1.1 (Silver)
Working System Home windows 11 As much as Date

Head on to the following web page as we check the totally different DDR5-4800B reminiscence kits and provides our evaluation.